A continuacion ejemplo de ley de incentivos para produccion de energia electrica alternativa. Sera posible en Puerto Rico algo similar?
El ultimo enlace de Windworks esta en ingles y provee importante informacion sobre energia eolica.
Swiss Electricity Supply Law
July 9, 2008
Swiss Adopt Aggressive Feed Law for Renewable Energy
First Nation with Specific Tariff for Small Wind Turbines
By Paul Gipe
In a surprising move, Switzerland has adopted one
of the world’s most aggressive systems of Advanced Renewable Tariffs.
The Swiss, famed for conservative traditions,
stodgy bankers, and trains that run on time, have
joined a growing list of countries using feed-in
tariffs to promote the rapid development of renewable energy.
Not content to start with a timid program
incrementally raising the bar year by year, the
Swiss federal government this spring launched a
full-system of feed-in tariffs differentiated by
technology, size, and application. There are
tariffs, or payments per kilowatt-hour (kWh), for
solar photovoltaics, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass.
The Swiss system, like those in Germany, France,
and Spain, pays a renewable energy generator for
every kWh of electricity generated. The payments
are made for periods of 20 to 25 years, depending upon the technology.
The new Swiss tariffs, among the highest in the
world, are the first to include a specific tariff
for small wind turbines--those under 10 kW--of
0.20 SWF/kWh (~$0.20/kWh) for 20 years.
The states of Michigan, Illinois, Rhode Island,
and Minnesota have proposed similar tariffs for
small wind turbines, $0.25/kWh, but none of the proposals have yet become law.
Tariffs for large wind turbines use the German
system of tariff differentiation by resource
intensity. Because of the rugged Swiss terrain,
the program’s designers needed to provide tariffs
for wind energy that would enable profitable
operation in deep valleys as well as on windy
mountaintops, while at the same time protecting
ratepayers from unnecessary costs.
In the Swiss system, every wind turbine is paid
the same price for its electricity during the
first five years. After that, production is
averaged. The average is then compared with a
reference site defined in the law. Depending upon
the wind resource, the premium payment of 0.20
SWF/kWh is extended beyond the first five years.
After the premium period, the tariff falls to
0.17 SWF/kWh (~$0.17/kWh) for the remainder of
the 20 year contract. For the reference site, the
premium payment of 0.20 SWF/kWh ($0.20/kWh) is
extended for the full 20-year period.
The wind tariffs are among the highest in the
world, but less than those requested by Suisse
Eole. The trade association calculated that with
Swiss terrain, and the high cost of wind
turbines, 0.28 SWF/kWh would be necessary for the
first five years, and 0.20 SWF/kWh for the post-premium period.
The tariffs for solar PV put Switzerland on a par
with Germany and France, though the contract
period of 25 years is the longest outside Spain.
For rooftop systems of less than 10 kW in size,
the tariffs are 0.75 SWF/kWh. For building
integrated solar PV, the tariffs rival those in
neighboring France. For building-integrated
systems of less than 10 kW in size, the tariffs are 0.90 SWF/kWh ($0.88/kWh).
Currently there are 29 MW of solar PV in the
country; 7 MW were installed in 2007.
The Swiss, ever meticulous, avoided disrupting
the solar industry while the new law was under
lengthy discussions, by grandfathering solar PV
installations installed from 2006 through the
law’s introduction in April 2008.
Geothermal plants of less than 5 MW in size will
receive 0.30 SWF/kWh ($0.30/kWh) for 20 years.
Funds to pay for the tariffs will come from a
systems benefits charge of 0.006 SWF/kWh on all
electricity consumption, says Reto Rigassi of
Suisse Eole, the Swiss wind energy association.
This is equivalent to 320 million SWF, or about
$310 million, at current exchange rates.
While there is no MW cap on the program, there is
a cap on the portion contributed by each
technology to the total program. Hydro generation
is capped at 50% of the fund, and wind at 30%.
However, the wind association’s Rigassi explains
that the entire program is capped at 150% of the funds collected.
Most controversial are the limits placed on solar
PV. Solar photovoltaics are capped at 5% of the
fund. Swissolar, the Swiss solar trade
association, has called on the government to lift
the cap, arguing that solar PV could ultimately
meet one-third of Swiss electricity supply.
There are currently 1,000 people employed in the
Swiss solar industry, and Bank Sarasin suggests
that the number could increase if Switzerland
developed its home market with more aggressive policies.
The program will be reviewed every five years.
The first review may be within three years.
As elsewhere, special provisions are made for
data collection from the private generators who
participate in the program. The law specifically
states that generators must provide data on
generation upon the government’s request.
Swiss parliamentarians have been debating a
modern renewable energy policy for several years.
The country’s renewable energy advocates have
watched in frustration as renewable energy boomed
in Germany to the north, France to the west, and
Italy to the south. Now, with one of the world’s
most progressive systems of Advanced Renewable
Tariffs, the Swiss are in the game.
For more information see:
www.admin.ch/ ch/f/as/2008/ 1223.pdf,
* www.swissolar. ch,
* www.suisse- eole.ch, and
of Feed-In Tariffs Worldwide.
208 S. Green St., #5
Tehachapi CA 93561-1741 USA
661 325 9590, 661 472 1657 mobile
Grand Livre de l'Éolien (ISBN: 2-913620-39- 6), 2007.
Segun planilla contribucion ingresos individuos 2007, forma larga, pag. 26, linea 11:
deduccion del 50% gastos adquisicion/instalacion molinos de viento (sic - deberia ser aerogeneradores o turbinas eolicas) hasta maximo de $3,000 ($1,500 si casado y rinde separado). De fabricacion o 50% del costo añadido realizado nacionalmente. Garantia de 5 años o mas, autorizacion de ARPE, certificado al fabricante o distribuidor por DNRA.
En Puerto Rico no se fabrica ningun sistema de aerogeneradores, no existe garantia de 5 años o mas en sistemas residenciales (maximo 2). Para que permiso de ARPE y DRNA? Porque dejan fuera beneficios para aparatos de fabricacion casera?
Imprescindible cambios para incentivar/fomentar produccion de energia a nivel residencial, produccion nacional de aerogeneradores y otras tecnologias para las mismas. Queda a discusion del foro.
Queremos que se sienta en la mayor libertad de preguntar y comentar sobre asuntos que le preocupen sobre: facturación, derecho, sistemas y energía renovable. Pronto tendremos presentaciones municipales sobre las ventajas de pertenecer como Asociado de APEV. Una vez más, ¡Bienvenidos!
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